Nootropic drugs are a group of substances intended to stimulate the metabolism of the central nervous system (CNS) metabolism, which is supposed to result in the activation of such mental processes as the level of consciousness, perception and memory phenomena.
Piracetam is a 2-pyrrolidone derivative with a structure similar to the neurotransmitter GABA inhibitor (gamma-aminobutyric acid). The compound is a substance used in the treatment of pathological conditions of neurological background. Nootropic medicinal product with oral bioavailability (100%) and half-life of 4-8 h should therefore be used in divided doses, eg three times a day. It is called the father of all racetams.
Piracetam does not occur naturally in plant foods.
Mechanism of action in the body
The mechanism of action of piracetam has not been completely explained. It probably facilitates the synthesis of high energy compounds in nervous tissue and increases energy reserves by improving the utilization of glucose and oxygen in the central nervous system neurons, as well as by increasing the tolerance of nerve cells to reduced oxygen. Additionally preventing aggregation (aggravation) of morphotic elements reduces blood viscosity and improves microcirculation in the cerebral vessels. Piracetam intensifies the effects of stimulants.
There are also reports of the effects of piracetam on improving the production of neurotransmitters as well as stimulating release from the nerve endings. Probably it is about increasing the levels of dopamine, GABA and noradrenaline, and improving the neurotransmitter neuronal transmission in the central neuronal pathways, which is particularly noticeable in states of reduced activity in these places.
Piracetam given to people in the Alzheimer’s group increased glucose consumption by 8-10%.
Another scientist’s theory on the mechanism of action of piracetam is its selective action on the specific receptors for glutamic acid (stimulant neurogenic and GABA precursor) of AMPA-GluR2 and GluR3, which are important for memory formation and knowledge absorption.
The action of piracetam results in improved psychophysical efficiency, concentration of attention, ability to memorize and restore information stored in long-term memory. Piracetam is as effective as aspirin in preventing blood coagulation, making it a useful complement to treatment after cardiovascular traumas. Thus, it is used in patients with sickle cell anemia because it prevents clustering of erythrocytes and improves the elasticity of their cell membrane.
Piracetam has been used in medicine for many years with positive effects in various disease processes and mental disorders. It counteracts memory impairment, learning disabilities, disorders of mating and remembrance, and issues related to adapting to the new environment and social adjustment.
It is used in the treatment of cognitive disorders in dementia, pathological involuntary movements (myoclonios) of cortical origin, dizziness, dyslexia (specific learning difficulties in reading and writing, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/116285) and in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
In general, piracetam increases the consumption of glucose and oxygen in the brain that precedes cognitive improvement (these actions are global – they do not favor only “some” brain regions) and are more significant in people with cognitive impairment). It also has proven research into the benefits of rehabilitation after stroke – much faster restores brain function and activates larger areas of work.
Piracetam should be used in two or three divided doses during the day.
The standard dose of piracetam for children during ADHD treatment is between 40-100mg per kilogram body weight.
For adults, it is recommended to take 1000-1200 mg 2-3 times a day due to the 4-8 hours half-life.
Cognitive disorders are treated with a maximum daily dose of 2.4 g. The effects of the administration of the preparation are not apparent until after prolonged use.
Piracetam does not cause physical dependence. It can increase physical fitness and sex drive. Do not use in the evening because it can cause problems falling asleep.
In conclusion, piracetam is a product designed to improve cognitive performance and increase mental productivity. Recommended for students, mental workers, and anyone who is overwhelmingly intellectual. Used in the elderly can prevent dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. For therapeutic purposes should be used under the control of a specialist.